How do you choose colors in a webpage?

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When creating a color scheme it's important to have some neutral grayscale colors, some high saturation high chroma colors, some contrasting ( complimentary ) colors ( if your main color is blue, add a yellow/orange to contrast it ), and some analogous colors ( if your main color is blue, green is an example of an analogous color ). This information can be found by studying the color wheel theory.

In addition to what's already been said, bright highly saturated contrasting colors will draw attention. Use them very sparingly on areas of high importance ( ex: calls-to-action such as "sign up" ). Most colors should be neutral ( grayscale, black, white, etc ) with splashes of chroma on important things.

PS: When using colors, it's important to keep in mind the color-blind people :) Don't use color alone to indicate something.

PPS: If you're in a rush, there are plenty of websites out there with premade color schemes, such as

https://coolors.co/browser/best/1

http://www.degraeve.com/color-palette/index.php

http://www.0to255.com/BED85D

http://bada55.io/

https://yeun.github.io/open-color/