There are a lot of programming languages that aren't very well-known now, but may have some interesting features. I keep finding a new one every now and then.

They may have faded to obscurity, they may still be in development, they may serve a small niche, or they may just not have caught on.

Do you know any? Any language that is not too popular and has at least one cool feature is welcome!

I consider these languages to be 'established', but if you have a useful-but-obscure feature, that's welcome:

  • Bash
  • C
  • C#
  • C++
  • Coffeescript
  • Csh
  • CSS
  • Go
  • HTML
  • Java
  • Javascript
  • Julia
  • Kotlin
  • Matlab
  • Objective-C
  • Octave
  • PHP
  • Python
  • R
  • Ruby
  • Rust
  • Scala
  • SQL
  • Swift
  • Typescript
  • Visual Basic


  • prolog - this is a great logic programming language. Prolog along with LISP and Smalltalk influenced Erlang.

  • APL - stands for A Programming Language. Here programming is done with the Mathematical notations.

  • lisp/scheme - these are ultimate functional programming language.

“LISP has been jokingly described as the most intelligent way to misuse a computer. I think that description a great compliment because it transmits the full flavor of liberation: it has assisted a number of our most gifted fellow humans in thinking previously impossible thoughts.” ― Edsger Dijkstra

“Lisp is worth learning for the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it; that experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use Lisp itself a lot.” ― Eric S. Raymond

The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ― Richard Stallman

Take Lisp, you know it's the most beautiful language in the world - at least up until Haskell came along. ― Larry Wall

  • haskell - this is the only fully functional language.

SQL, Lisp, and Haskell are the only programming languages that I've seen where one spends more time thinking than typing. ― Philip Greenspun

  • smalltalk - people says that it's the only language which is fully object oriented, and its rebirth is Ruby.


  • There are a lot of awsm esoteric languages too:
  • Brainfuck: You have only 8 instructions and a long single dimension array. Making any programs is very hard, but that's where all its fun lies.
  • befunge: You do programming in sort of 2D grid.
  • There are some more: marioLang, ///(slashes), etc.
  • You can easily make interpreters for any of these languages. Some of them are even Turing Complete.

  • I once saw a video, in which a man created a Turing machine in MS PowerPoint. So, you can also do some sort of programming in PowerPoint.

  • Another person created a game engine in MS Excel, I think he used VBA in it.

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go on, APL will get some love.

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Jan 28, 2018