prolog - this is a great logic programming language. Prolog along with LISP and Smalltalk influenced Erlang.
APL - stands for A Programming Language. Here programming is done with the Mathematical notations.
lisp/scheme - these are ultimate functional programming language.
“LISP has been jokingly described as the most intelligent way to misuse a computer. I think that description a great compliment because it transmits the full flavor of liberation: it has assisted a number of our most gifted fellow humans in thinking previously impossible thoughts.” ― Edsger Dijkstra
“Lisp is worth learning for the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it; that experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use Lisp itself a lot.” ― Eric S. Raymond
The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ― Richard Stallman
Take Lisp, you know it's the most beautiful language in the world - at least up until Haskell came along. ― Larry Wall
- haskell - this is the only fully functional language.
SQL, Lisp, and Haskell are the only programming languages that I've seen where one spends more time thinking than typing. ― Philip Greenspun
- smalltalk - people says that it's the only language which is fully object oriented, and its rebirth is Ruby.
- There are a lot of awsm esoteric languages too:
- Brainfuck: You have only 8 instructions and a long single dimension array. Making any programs is very hard, but that's where all its fun lies.
- befunge: You do programming in sort of 2D grid.
- There are some more: marioLang, ///(slashes), etc.
You can easily make interpreters for any of these languages. Some of them are even Turing Complete.
I once saw a video, in which a man created a Turing machine in MS PowerPoint. So, you can also do some sort of programming in PowerPoint.
Another person created a game engine in MS Excel, I think he used VBA in it.